For details, see Vasaly, A. Cicero, at any rate, typically characterized his audience as being more knowledgeable than it most likely was. While it may go too far to see this institution, in which members of Rome’s ruling elite sat in judgement over their peers, as a means by which Rome’s imperial republic maintained for itself the myth of beneficial imperialism, in practice the court can be considered ‛the chief countervailing force against the all-powerful Roman magistrate and his companions in the military field and provincial government.’36, 31In the course of its history, arrangements of who could act as prosecutor and who manned the juries underwent several changes. Ich hab kein Plan, wie das geht, hab mich auch schon nach andren Übersetzungen totgesucht und auch teilweise den andren Text gefunden, aber ich bräuchte mal, falls einer das hat, ne Übersetzung zum ersten Abschnitt der ersten Verres-Rede: interior, -ius, gen. -ōris, sup. (1993), Imperium Romanum. About sixty of the 110 days he had available, he spent on a trip to Sicily, priding himself on ‛the speed of his return’ (Ver. quem omnia ‘intus canere’ dicebant: the antecedent of quem is citharistam; the relative pronoun quem is the subject accusative of the indirect statement introduced by dicebant; omnia is accusative object of canere. ), Brill’s Companion to Cicero: Oratory and Rhetoric, Leiden, Boston, Cologne, 23-48. 7This is not to say that Verres was a particularly delightful human being. upon the death of King Attalus III of Pergamum. This is the reason why the Greeks proverbially called all thieves ‘Aspendian cithara-players’: he concealed his music-playing, just as these concealed their thefts. 2.1.16: celeritas reditionis). (1967), ’Verres and Judicial Corruption’, Classical Quarterly 17, 408-13; McDermott, W. C. (1977), ’The Verrine Jury’, Rheinisches Museum 120, 64-75. Each section is supposed to give easy access to pertinent contextual information, with a sprinkling of references to works of secondary literature for those who wish to pursue a specific aspect further. Even in the case against Verres, where he acted as prosecutor, he stressed that he entered into the fray as an advocate of the Sicilians. The Trial of Verres and Cicero’s Set of Speeches against Verres, 4. [Ingo Gildenhard; Marcus Tullius Cicero] This is followed by an account of the infamous episode at Lampsacus, which revolves around an unsuccessful attempt to abduct and rape a local woman that resulted in the death of a Roman official, provincials pushed to the brink of rioting, and judicial murder. ), Cicero the Advocate, Oxford, 117-46 (117). ), Law, Politics and Society in the Ancient Mediterranean World, Sheffield, 156-92; and Kaizer, T. and Facella, M. (2010), ’Introduction’, in idem (eds. The evidence is murky. ; 81: parcetis? artificio art/craft/trade; skill/talent/craftsmanship; art work; method/trick; technology. My name is Fadil Nohur, a.k.a. It never reconvened: Verres considered the case that Cicero presented against him during the first hearing so compelling that he went into voluntary exile. Non dicam: ‘an effective form of comparatio, rising from a lesser variety of wrongdoing to a greater’: Mitchell (1986) 185. hoc dico…: Latin authors frequently add a demonstrative pronoun to verbs of thinking and stating that introduce an accusative + infinitive construction to give special emphasis to the indirect statement: ‘This I say, namely that you…’ The feature gains in force and prominence here by way of contrast to the non-dicam clause, where Cicero does not use it. 21In this context, it is also worth noting how Cicero constantly engages the audience: he appeals to them as persons endowed with a special disposition and committed to certain values, but does not hesitate to let them know how disastrous it would be if they did not decide the case at hand in his favour. plaustris wagon, cart, wain; constellation of Great Bear/Big Dipper; euecta carry away, convey out; carry up; exalt; jut out, project; exportō, -āre, -āvī, -ātum, [ex + portō], 1, a., carry away, send away, export. Ver. According to Cicero, Verres’ counter-arguments do not amount to much and crumble under scrutiny. (1980), ’Patronage and Politics in the Verrines’, Chiron 10, 273-89. 19 Cicero uses *praeteritio to pass over Verres’ (singularly depraved) youth, limiting his coverage of Verres’ crimes to the four periods in which he acted as a magistrate of the Roman people: his quaestorship, his legateship in Asia Minor, his urban praetorship, and his governorship of Sicily (§ 34). Some cite the five speeches designed for the second actio as 2Ver. 38 Cf. Aspendum a town in Pamphylia that came under Roman rule in 133 B.C. But what the cithara-player of Aspendos is wont to do is difficult: for he does not use both hands in a performance, but does everything, that is, the entire performance, ‘inside’ and with the left hand only. What audiences find persuasive differs from culture to culture and, within a given culture, from one setting to another. Giustiniani (1,033 words) exact match in snippet view article find links to article (Heraklion, Crete), translator of Terence's Andria and Eunuchus, of Cicero's In Verrem, and of Virgil's Aeneid, viii. [Ingo Gildenhard; Marcus Tullius Cicero] Answer this question with reference to, What is the technical term of the stylistic device that links. Search. In a society that placed a premium on esteem for magistrates, this would have meant a powerful boost to Verres’ cause. to 71 B.C., who was prosecuted by Cicero in 70 B.C. We encounter: 29In addition to provincial governors and their staff, Cicero also mentions Romans who had come to Asia independently to pursue business interests. But how does one succeed in causing another person to consent to one’s own point of view and to act accordingly? – 1. (When cithara-players perform, they make use of both hands: the right hand uses the plectron and this is called ‘to perform outside’; the fingers of the left hand pluck the strings and this is called ‘to perform inside’. Aspendum: located on the Southern coast of Turkey on the right bank of the river Eurymedon (between the modern tourist hotspots Antalya and Alanya), Aspendos was a significant centre of trade in ancient times, especially for salt, oil, grain, and wool; after the battle of Magnesia in 190 BC, it became part of the kingdom of Pergamum, which King Attalus III, at his death without heir, bequeathed to Rome in 133 BC. In Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius Scipio Nasica, Lucius Cornelius Sisenna, and Quintus Hortensius Hortalus, the consul designate for 69 and a formidable public speaker, Verres managed to recruit a group of defence advocates brimming with nobility and talent. a story or narrative, from the technical term narratio, which is used of that part of a forensic speech in which the speaker sets out the facts of the case: see Levene, D. S. (2004), ’Reading Cicero’s Narratives’, in J. Powell and J. Paterson (eds. 20When it comes to the depiction of character, Cicero likes to paint in black and white. By varying the verbs (reliquisse; evecta exportataque esse), Cicero manages to apply both of the antithetical poles ‘none’ and ‘all’ to Verres’ despoilment of Aspendos, in keeping with his preference for ‘extreme’ expressions (see note on plenissimum above). Vérifiez si votre institution a déjà acquis ce livre : authentifiez-vous à OpenEdition Freemium for Books. Whereas Verres and his ilk appear as villains and perverts, he lavishes praise upon the inhabitants of Lampsacus and in particular Philodamus and his son. Such commissions could be either ad hoc or permanent (‛standing’). To provide readers of Greek and Latin with high interest texts equipped with media, vocabulary, and grammatical, historical, and stylistic notes. In the main, however, Cicero built his career, and even more so his legacy, on supreme ability in the realms of language, literature, and thought. Salvete, ich bin in den letzten Zügen vor der Latinumsprüfung und verzweifle regelmäßig an Marcus Tullius Cicero. ; 82: Nolite... cogere,... nisi vos vindicatis! Towards the end of the republican period, legates who travelled in the company of pro-magistrates were also given lictors, especially when they represented their superior in military command or jurisdiction. 44 In 44 BC, when he wrote the de Divinatione, Cicero was familiar with local lore (Div. 3The orations are brilliant models of eloquence (as well as spin) by arguably the supreme prose stylist ever to write in Latin. Cicero portrays Verres and Dolabella in such a way as to remove them from civilized society: they come across as beasts ruled either by their passions or even worse instincts such as delight in cruelty; the Lampsacenes, in contrast, represent a peace-loving community that cherishes private and public values dear to the Romans as well, such as devotion to family members, unselfish courage, and commitment to civic life. Nōn dīcam illinc hoc signum ablātum esse et illud. (ed.) ... Cicero, Against Verres, 2.1.53-86. ), Freundschaft und Gefolgschaft in den auswärtigen Beziehungen der Römer (2. Valet hoc proverbium et in eos qui multum intestinis suis commodis consulunt praeter honestatem. Landmark events in Rome’s conquest of the Greek East include the following (those in bold Cicero mentions in § 55): 229: First Illyrian War197: T. Quinctius Flamininus defeats Philip V, King of Macedonia, at Cynoscephalai190: L. Cornelius Scipio Asiaticus defeats Antiochus III, King of Syria168: L. Aemilius Paulus defeats Perseus, King of Macedonia146: L. Mummius destroys Corinth; establishment of the province of Macedonia133: Attalus III, King of Pergamum, bequeathes his kingdom to Rome upon his death129: Establishment of the province of Asiac. ; 63: indices; 71: potestis dnbitare...? intus – intimus: a *paronomasia; Cicero plays with the fact that the two words are etymologically related. No clear consensus has emerged, not least since his practice will most likely have differed from case to case, ranging from almost instant release with only minor adjustments to significant revision and publication several years after the original delivery.17 The speeches that Cicero prepared for the second hearing belong to those that he anyway never gave, so here the question is moot. More general studies include Corbeill, A. In 167 BC, the Greek historian Polybius considered Rome’s conquest of Greece (and the known world more generally) an accomplished fact. Badian, E. (1958), Foreign Clientelae: 264-70 BC, Oxford; Gruen, E. (1984), The Hellenistic World and the Coming of Rome, Berkeley; Williams, C. (2008), ’Friends of the Roman People. Cicero Actionis secundae in C. Verrem Liber Quintus. 5428 (A. D. 1470): non modo Romae sed et (etiam Halm) apud ext. for corruption. In all of his published orations, Cicero maintains the illusion that the text is the record of a performance. Difficile est autem quod Aspendius citharista faciebat: ut non uteretur cantu utraque manu, sed omnia, id est universam cantionem, intus et sinistra tantum manu complecteretur. It would have been Cicero’s practice in any case to work up extensive written notes for a speech before its oral delivery – which of course does not mean that he read from a script in court – and he most likely had his contribution to the actio secunda more or less ready to go by the time the trial began.18. 9 For issues of chronology, see Marinone, N. (1950), Quaestiones Verrinae, Turin; and (1977), Cronologia Ciceroniana, Rome, 65-7. Site Activity; Resources. By turning it into a fact, Cicero both flatters and bullies the audience: since no one likes to appear ignorant, presumably even those members of the audience (most likely the majority) who had never heard of either the statue or the proverb would have nodded knowingly. Cicero won the case against major resistance. Throughout the Verrines (though not in the passage under consideration here) Cicero plays on a sense of constitutional crisis.38 It was part of a larger strategy ‛to make Verres’ guilt matter’, not least for purposes of self-promotion.39. 30 The classic treatment is Badian, E. (1972), Publicans and Sinners. 2.1. The most important handbook on invention and style in classical and classicizing rhetoric is Lausberg, H. (1998), Handbook of Literary Rhetoric, Leiden. quaestio (from quaero + tio) refers, in its most basic sense, to ‛the act of searching’ and then came to mean ‛judicial investigation, inquiry’ and, more specifically, ‛a commission appointed to try certain cases of serious public crimes’ (Oxford Latin Dictionary s. v. 4). fiddle_n, the author of these sets back in 2011-2012. Section 3 outlines the main modes of persuasion in (ancient) rhetoric and briefly indicates how Cicero applies them in our passage. By showing the defendant in action (as it were), Cicero thus makes narration (or a narrative) do the work of argumentation.23 Only after he has established his version of the event as a compelling point of reference does he switch into a more explicitly argumentative mode. Wenn ich bei euren Übersetzungen gucke, und bei Verrem 1,1 schaue, dann ist da ein ganz andrer Text. The contrast between what Cicero will not say and what he is saying (non dicam – hoc dico). praeter r et Burn. 2.2-5 with the fourth. See also the note on de quo saepe audistis below. THE ORATION FOR SEXTUS ROSCIUS OF AMERIA. 2.1), from which our passage comes, contains an exhaustive discussion of Verres’ career before he took on the governorship of Sicily. One rewarding exercise in responding to Cicero’s ethopoiea is to colour in shades of grey – that is, to interrogate his categorical condemnations as well as his unqualified embraces, in an effort to arrive at a more realistic picture of his personnel.25. intimus, adj., inner, interior; nearer, deeper; sup., inmost, innermost, deepest; intimate, close. For the problem of plausibility in abuse, see Craig, C. (2004), ’Audience Expectations, Invective, and Proof’, in J. Powell and J. Paterson (eds. My name is Fadil Nohur, a.k.a. scitis … te…, Verres: the second person plural addressing the judges, the deictic pronoun, and the vocative are all features that produce and sustain the illusion of a life-performance: Cicero wants his audience to re-imagine the courtroom setting and him turning to and directly addressing the main parties involved in the trial: here he makes a gesture to the judges before turning to the defendant. ; 72: andite, qnaeso, indices et... miseremini... et ostendite...! Verres’ legateship in the Greek East fell into a period marked by much unrest across the entire region. In § 69, he reports that Roman citizens in Lampsacus on business successfully intervened when the local mob was trying to burn down the house in which Verres stayed. Cicero, Against Verres, 2.1.53-86. 2.1 deals with the first three parts of this fourfold division (quadripertita distributio), Ver. If the setting is a court of law, the prosecutor tries to convince those who judge the case of the guilt of the defendant, whereas the advocate aims to achieve a verdict of innocence. In Verrem ("Against Verres") is a series of speeches made by Cicero in 70 BC, during the corruption and extortion trial of Gaius Verres, the former governor of Sicily.The speeches, which were concurrent with Cicero's election to the aedileship, paved the way for Cicero's public career. Latin Cicero In Verrem 2.1 Chapter 58 Translation [Click Info tab for entire description] Hello! Book Description: Looting, despoiling temples, attempted rape and judicial murder: these are just some of the themes of this classic piece of writing by one of the world’s greatest orators. The passage under discussion here is no exception. And in each province, the Romans interacted with a complex patchwork of communities as well as – when the province was located at the border of Rome’s imperial sway – with neighbouring kings and peoples. Skip navigation Sign in. See also Kennedy, G. (1994), A New History of Classical Rhetoric, Princeton; and, for the afterlife of ancient rhetoric, Kennedy, G. (1980), Classical Rhetoric and its Christian and Secular Tradition from Ancient to Modern Times, Chapel Hill. authentifiez-vous à OpenEdition Freemium for Books. 11After the selection of the jury in the second half of July, the trial began on 5 August. (cf. . In outline, we have the following corpus: Divinatio in Caecilium [delivered January 70 BC]in Verrem 1 [delivered August 70 BC, during the actio prima]in Verrem 2 [planned for the actio secunda, but never delivered]in Verrem 2.1: Verres’ youth and public career prior to his governorship of Sicilyin Verrem 2.2: Sicily – abuse of judicial powerin Verrem 2.3: Sicily – extortion of taxesin Verrem 2.4: Sicily – robbery of artworksin Verrem 2.5: Sicily – Verres as magistrate with imperium, responsible for public safety and endowed with the power to punish, 14Cicero only decided to publish a selection of his speeches.16 The fact that he circulated all the speeches to do with the trial of Verres indicates his high opinion of the set and his belief in their value as documents of self-promotion.
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